THE (REAL) TRUTH ABOUT COMET LEE 

By: Colonel James B. Ervin (Researcher)

 

The following rebuttal is in direct reference to the recent opinions and (constantly evolving*) statements made on the "Comet Observation Home Page**," as well as numerous other Websites and Newsgroup Forums.

* See "The Daily Diffs"

Link Page: http://www.dailydiffs.com/dhi00zuc.htm

** See "Comet Observation Home Page"

Link Page: http://encke.jpl.nasa.gov/

 

PLEASE REFERENCE THE FOLLOWING COPY OF MORRIS' (LATEST) STATEMENTS: 

( QUOTED LINE FOR LINE )

The Truth About Comet Lee

There have been some wild statements made about Comet Lee [officially known as C/1999H1 (Lee)]. These

are simply bogus, false statements by people who must have some agenda other than the truth. Given below is the truth...

1. o Comet Lee's orbit is not erratic. It is well-known. The comet will not hit the Earth or come any place close to it. This also means that debris or an asteroid associated with the comet could not endanger the Earth. Such "debris" would be left in the comet's orbit and would basically follow the orbit. If the comet's orbit doesn't intersect the Earth's orbit (and it doesn't), it is not possible for debris to hit the Earth. The closest the comet will come to the Earth is about 77 million miles (the Sun is 93 million miles from Earth) at the end of September 1999. An orbital diagram is posted below...see for yourself. 

2. o Comet Lee (or any comet) will not cause coronal mass ejection's. And Comet Lee's orbit is not affected by them.

3. o The comet is not expected to become bright. It is not abnormally bright nor is it brightening at an unusual rate. In fact, it is not expected to become a naked-eye object. It is currently near its peak brightness. [Someone has quoted the parameter "n", which indicates the rate of a comet's brightening with respect to its distance from the Sun, as being 5.4 for Comet Lee. This, they say, is evidence that my statement above is incorrect. The fact is that values of n typically range from 2.5 to 6 for long period comets. Some short period comets have much higher values. I stand by my statement that Comet Lee's brightness or variation in brightness is not unusual. I base this on 30-years of analyzing comet light curves.]

It seems every time we have a modestly bright comet, someone or group or tabloid will claim that the comet is a threat to the Earth, has a spaceship traveling next to it or some other nonsense. They get on the radio and call themselves "scientists." To them, those of us that provide legitimate information on comets are obviously part of some grand conspiracy. If you are one that believes the nonsense that these people promote, that is certainly your right. However, remember their predictions. When they do not come true...and none of them came true with Comet Hale-Bopp...perhaps next time you will not be so willing to believe the pseudo-scientific predictions they make.

Charles S. Morris

************************************************************************

"THE REBUTTAL"

Statement: Some, would have you believe that the scientific method (as it applies to the study of celestial mechanics) is solely limited to the IAU, NASA/JPL and others whose astronomical research is primarily funded by the government and or special interest groups within the private sector. This assertion, is quite simply, one of the greatest deceptions ever heaped upon the mind of man. "Scientific Truth" is not the bastion of any one particular society, and those who claim sole exclusive rights to legitimate science, dishonor themselves, and the historical contributions of private researchers everywhere.

POINT:

1. (A): Comet Lee's orbit is not erratic. It is well-known.

COUNTER-POINT: 

1. (A): No one at the Millennium Group (MG) has characterized Comet Lee as having an erratic orbit. However, we have said that this comet has experienced erratic (unexpected) brightening*, and that there are remarkable variance's in the ephemeris (orbital) plots for C/1999 H1 (Lee), as released by the IAU and NASA/JPL, as well as numerous Japanese and Southern Hemisphere Observatories. (See Counter-Point 3 Below*)

Please reference the following (MG) statements, and, supportive links below: 

Quoting: Jim McCanney ( Inter-Group E-mail )

Subject: Orbital hanky panky

Date: Sun, 06 Jun 1999 22:42:02 -0500

Guys: 

" I have checked as many sources as I can and the orbits vary* so wildly that it is unreal. I bet this comet is moving all over the place, and is simply "fooling" the standard programs that are used to calculate orbits with the given number of sightings. They are all over the board on this, and it will need some very serious analysis to weed out the truth. This is truly a lawless comet, and with the erratic brightening happening it is certain to be far off course every day. This already says something about its internal composition, and I think Earl may be right that the mysterious sun flaring we have been scratching our heads about for the past 6 months just found its source in this comet. This could be a doozy! August is now looking like a time for the first possible trouble." 

Jim McCanney 

* Refers to variance in the ephemeris (orbital) plots. 

Link Page: http://www.millenngroup.com/repository/cometary/lee.htm 

---------------------------------------------

Quoting Earl Crockett: par

Date: 10 June, 1999 

SAY HELLO TO COMET C/1999 H1 (LEE)

-A GREAT AND MARVELOUS WORK-Ý 

A MILLENNIUM GROUP SPECIAL REPORT

Earl L. Crockett, Writer 

****Excerpted from: Paragraph #2****

"Comet C/1999 H1 (Lee), (C/Lee), is not a periodic comet (such as Halley) nor is it a long-period comet (Hale-Bopp). In fact it really has no "period" at all as it is coming almost straight into our Solar System from interstellar space. This means that C/Lee's "orbit" (period) can only be determined with any certainty (using official NASA approved gravity only celestial mechanics) after C/Lee has reached perihelion (crossed over the Sun), and exited down below the orbital path of the planets (the ecliptic). Gravity only celestial mechanics is the only method of orbital calculation allowed by the Big Bang cosmology priesthood of NASA. Consequently we are already observing a wild-shift in official orbital predictions; initially projecting C/Lee exiting beyond the orbit of Jupiter but, currently projecting the exit near Mars. Why is this happening in the short time span between its initial discovery in mid April 1999, and today some six weeks later? Possibly because all of the official orbital software, running on all of the official super-computers, by all the king's men, is based nice behaving little periodic comets like Halley. And to make things even worse the official dirty snowball comet theory states that comets are heated by the Sun and shed (sublimate) their icy dust thereby loosing mass: which in "good-old" Newtonian physics means that their orbits should expand outward rather than tighten inward. Guess what folks? That's not what is happening even at this very moment as C/Lee approaches."

Link Page: http://www.millenngroup.com/repository/cometary/lee.htm 

As to whether Comet Lee's orbit is well known, this depends entirely on whose version of the ephemeris you care to review or believe. There are considerable inconsistency's to be found in the orbital elements of a good many ephemeride sites. This may be at least partially attributable to the differences between computer software programs used to calculate the comet's orbital ephemeris. However, it should be noted that Comet Lee's orbit began to fluctuate shortly after its passage by Mars and Jupiter, this region of space is well known for its gravity effects on comets. The most recent example of which is Shoemaker-Levy 9. Nevertheless, there is a veritable Pandora's Box of less publicized interactions which can effect a comet's passage through this region. Some of these lesser known effects include: Ion Exchange, Plasma Induction, Mass Loading, and Solar Wind - Orbital Alteration. Consequently, it is not unreasonable to extrapolate that Comet Lee's orbit may have been influenced during its initial passage into the inner solar system, by some or all of these factors, thereby producing the multitude of inconsistent orbital ephemerides which have been noted between each site that has run the calculations. 

Please compare the orbital (Ephemeride) elements posted at the following sites: 

Link Pages:

http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/Ephemerides/Comets/1999H1.html

http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/mpec/J99/J99H06.html

http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iauc/07100/07145.html

http://www.info.waseda.ac.jp/muraoka/members/seiichi/comet/catalog/1999H1/1999H1.html

http://home.wxs.nl/~ggilein/1999h1.html 

-----------------------------------------------

POINT:

1. (B): The comet will not hit the Earth or come any place close to it.

COUNTER-POINT:

1. (B): Anyone who categorically asserts that Comet Lee will not strike the Earth, or that it will not pass anywhere near it, is stating opinion - not fact. No one, and this includes NASA/JPL, can accurately predict Comet Lee's post perihelion ephemeris because of the Sun's (early*) arrival into Solar Maximum. Remember, the ephemeris of C/1999 H1 (Lee) is not locked into stone, an alteration could occur if this comet is struck by a: CME, Solar Flare, Asteroid, Sungrazing Kreutz Fragment, or a host of other possibilities. This is the reality of the situation, and any person or any organization who tells you otherwise, is clearly shielding you from the truth. 

However, I do want to go on the record as stating one thing (loud and clear) right now. I am not predicting that Comet Lee's orbit will be altered during perihelion, I am simply stating that it is a possibility which must be given the full consideration it deserves, anything less would be grossly negligent.

Newest Version of Comet Lee Ephemeris: 

Link Page: http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/Ephemerides/Comets/1999H1.html

Reference links on the effects of Solar Maximum: 

Link Page: http://quark.plk.af.mil/news/98-21.html (*)

Link Page: http://www.sunspotcycle.com/

Link Page: http://www.nas.edu/ssb/maxch3.htm

Link Page: http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/sftheory/

Link Page: http://www.got.net/~seasons/solar.html

Link Page: http://www.agu.org/GRL/articles/98GL50062/GL220W01.html

Link Page: http://www.explorezone.com/archives/99_03/09_ejections.htm

Link Page: http://fusedweb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart_pages/5.Plasmas/SolarWind.html

Note: For a quick look at Comet Lee's pre-plotted orbital ephemeris, please visit the Astroarts web

page listed below. Run the orbital simulator forward through November 7, 1999, and it will give you a clear indication of this comets perihelion passage, as well as its' high solar (northern) passage over the Earth. 

Link Page: http://www.astroarts.com/comets/1999/1999H1.html 

-----------------------------------------------

POINT: 

1.(C): This also means that debris or an asteroid associated with the comet could not endanger the Earth.

Such "debris" would be left in the comet's orbit and would basically follow the orbit. If the comet's orbit doesn't intersect the Earth's orbit (and it doesn't), it is not possible for debris to hit the Earth. 

COUNTER-POINT: 

1. (C): Now, as regards any associative: Cometary, Asteroid, or Meteor debris which might be following Comet Lee. The arguments stated above can only hold true, if the comet's current ephemeris holds true. Since Comet Lee's post perihelion orbit can not be authenticated until early August, when the comet will exit occultation and solar glare, it is, in essence, much to early too gauge the potential risks of any cometary ejecta striking the Earth during the comet's passage. 

Therefore, the question remains, could Comet Lee produce debris capable of impacting the Earth? The answer,

unfortunately, is yes. The Leonid meteor showers (associated with Comet Temple-Tuttle) are a prime example of the dangers associated with cometary debris, as are the Perseid Meteor showers caused by Comet Swift-Tuttle. Thus - it should be clear - there are irrefutable (debris) risks associated with any near Earth cometary approach. 

The HCN Factor: 

If C/1999 H1 (Lee) were to eject a cometary fragment at the Earth, such an event could prove considerably more disastrous than, I myself, originally anticipated. Comet Lee, it seems, contains a high percentage of HCN

or Hydrogen Cyanide, a highly explosive compound which is noted for its instability when mixed with oxygen.

Therefore, should a large cometary fragment survive entry into the earths atmosphere, its explosive yield could be far greater than any of the models run by Sandia. 

Sandia Labs: 

Link Page: http://sherpa.sandia.gov/planet-impact/asteroid/ 

Other Useful Sites: 

Link Page: http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/tps-seti/spacegd7.html

Link Page: http://impact.arc.nasa.gov/

Here are some fact pages on HCN.

Link Page: http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/hydrogencyanide/recognition.html

Link Page: http://encarta.msn.com/index/conciseindex/3F/03FE0000.htm

Link Page: http://www.indsci.com/hcn.html

The HCN Content of Comet Lee:

Link Page: http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iauc/07200/07203.html#Item1

Compare to: (DISCOVERY of HCN in HALE-BOPP) 

Link Page: http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/faculty/jewitt/submm_hb_hcn.html

---------------------------------------- 

Please note the following cometary abstract excerpt: 

Excerpted from: CDS-Bibliographic Service (©ULP/CNRS - Centre de DonnÈes astronomiques de Strasbourg) 

Link Page: http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/A+A/map.pl

***********************************

1997A&A...317..594P

The orbital elements of a meteoroid after its ejection from a comet.

PECINA P., SIMEK M.

*********************************** 

1997A&A...317..594P - Astron. Astrophys., 317, 594-600 (1997) - January(II) 1997 

"The orbital elements of a meteoroid after its ejection from a comet."

PECINA P., SIMEK M.

Abstract (from CDS): This article examines the changes in the orbital elements of particles ejected from the nucleus of an active comet. We extend the work of Plavec (1957PAICz..30...93P) to include changes in all the orbital elements resulting from the ejection process. We take into account the constraints that must be met before a meteoroid particle can be observed as a meteor. In addition we constrain particle ejection to take place only on the sun-ward hemisphere of the cometary nucleus and only when the comet is less than 1.88 AU from the Sun. For a given true anomaly of the ejection event, our equations allow the determination of the speed and direction of the ejected particle. Using the ejection of particles from comet P/Swift-Tuttle, we applied our approach in an attempt to explain whether or not a new filament of activity first seen in 1986 could be attributed to particles ejected from the comet near the time of its 1862 perihelion passage. Observed Perseid meteor rates in 1986 - 1995, expressed as a function of the solar longitude, cannot be used to uniquely determine the time the corresponding particles were ejected from the parent comet. The observed meteor shower activity could have been caused by particles that were ejected from the nucleus at a variety of times, velocities and ejection angles. 

Abstract Copyright: European Southern Observatory (ESO) 1997 

Journal keyword(s): Solar system: comets - meteors, meteoroids

Link(s): Full paper ADS services - ©ULP/CNRS - Centre de DonnÈes astronomiques de Strasbourg 

Other abstracts pertaining to cometary ejecta can be viewed at:

Link Page: http://techreports.jpl.nasa.gov/index.html

Here, is a fine abstract to begin your studies: "Long-Period Comets and the Oort Cloud"

See This Link - For Abstract Above: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/techreport/1996/96-1340.rfr.html

-------------------------------------- 

POINT:

1.(D): The closest the comet will come to the Earth is about 77 million miles (the Sun is 93 million miles from Earth) at the end of September 1999. An orbital diagram is posted below...see for yourself.

COUNTER-POINT:

1.(D): Barring an unforeseen solar event, as covered in Counter-Point 1.(B), the above orbital assessment of Comet Lee's (current) earthbound approach is unquestionably correct. But the Sun's apparent untimely slide

into Solar Maximum may represent a dramatic shift in the potential for plasma interactions between the Sun and Comet Lee. Thereby, intensifying the probabilities of a post perihelion orbit change in the comets ephemeris. 

Note: The Dale Ireland orbital diagram, cited above, depicts C/1999 H1 (Lee) and the planets Mercury through Mars during the comets July 11, 1999 Perihelion. Consequently, this diagram does not actually represent Comet Lee's potential for a July-August ephemeris change. Only satellite monitoring can provide an early disclosure of an orbital alteration, ground based observatories will have to wait until the comet's exodus from Perihelion and Coronal Occultation, to note a sustantial changes to its'orbital elements. This aspect is very disturbing. 

------------------------------- 

POINT:

2. Comet Lee (or any comet) will not cause coronal mass ejection's. And Comet Lee's orbit is not affected by them.

COUNTER-POINT: 

Don't Be Fooled! 

CME's - Or Coronal Mass Ejections, and Solar Flares, have pronounced effects upon the heliospheres and magnetospheres of planetoids and orbital satellites, including comets. Although in the case of comets, CME's, Solar Flares, and solar winds have a much more astonishing effect upon: Cometary Magnetospheres, Ionospheres, Gas Ionization, Solar Orbits, Charge Exchange, Photoionization, and Shock Wave Propagation. 

There are more than 50 abstracts relating to CME - Comet Casual - Relationships on the following webpages: 

Link Page: http://adswww.harvard.edu/ads_abstracts.html

Link Page: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-abs_connect 

NEW LINK: http://techreports.jpl.nasa.gov/index.html

Herewith, is a small sampling of the aforementioned abstract titles: 

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1997AdSpR..20b.255C

1.00001/1997AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝCOATES,ÝA.ÝJ.

Ionospheres and magnetospheres of comets

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1995AdSpR..15h.403C

0.37800/1995AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝCOATES,ÝA.ÝJ.

Heavy ion effects on cometary shocks

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1989AdSpR...9..293C

0.37500/1989AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝCRAVENS,ÝT.E.

Cometary plasma boundaries

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1988Ap&SS.147...69B

0.37308/1988AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝBARANOV,ÝV.ÝB.; LEBEDEV,ÝM.ÝG.

Solar-wind flow past a cometary ionosphere

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1986PAZh...12..551B

0.36508/1986AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝBARANOV,ÝV.B.; LEBEDEV,ÝM.G.

Solar-wind flow around a comet ionosphere - A self-consistent gasdynamic model with mass loading

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1990E&S.....3...10N

0.36511/1990AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝNEUGEBAUER,ÝMARCIA

The interaction of active comets with the solar wind

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1987magp.book..367I

0.36400/1987AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝIP,ÝW.-H.

Cometary plasma tails and the coma source region

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1995AdSpR..16d..41M

0.35808/1995AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝMAZELLE,ÝC.; REME,ÝH.; NEUBAUER,ÝF.ÝM.; GLASSMEIER,ÝK.-H.

Comparison of the main magnetic and plasma features in the environments of comets Grigg-Skjellerup and Halley

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1986ApJ...310..927B

0.35511/1986AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝGÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝOÝÝBARBOSA,ÝD.ÝD.; EVIATAR,ÝA.

Planetary fast neutral emission and effects on solar wind - A cometary exosphere analog

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1988JGR....93...35G

0.35201/1988AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝGOMBOSI,ÝT.I.

Preshock region acceleration of implanted cometary H(+) and O(+)

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1990RvGeo..28..231N

0.35105/1990AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝNEUGEBAUER,ÝM.

Spacecraft observations of the interaction of active comets with the solar wind

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1992GeoRL..19..837H

0.34704/1992AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝHUDDLESTON,ÝD.ÝE.; COATES,ÝA.ÝJ.; JOHNSTONE,ÝA.ÝD.

Predictions of the solar wind interaction with Comet Grigg-Skjellerup

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1993EM&P...60...31F

0.34101/1993AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝFLAMMER,ÝK.R.; MENDIS,ÝD.A.; SHAPIRO,ÝV.D.; SHEVCHENKO,ÝV.I.

The solar wind interaction with Comet P/Grigg-Skjellerup

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1988GMS...........B

0.33700/1988AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝBIRMINGHAM,ÝTHOMASÝJ.; DESSLER,ÝALEXANDERÝJ.

Comet encounters

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1991GMS....61.....J

0.33700/1991AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝTÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝJOHNSTONE,ÝALANÝD.

Cometary plasma processes

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1986ehac....3..179D

0.33412/1986AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝDALY,ÝP.ÝW.; KIRSCH,ÝE.; MCKENNA-LAWLOR,ÝS.; OSULLIVAN,ÝD.; THOMPSON,ÝA.; SANDERSON,ÝT.ÝR.; WENZEL,ÝK.-P.

Comparison of energetic ion measurements at Comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1987S&T....73..252S

0.33303/1987AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝSAGDEEV,ÝR.Z.; GALEEV,ÝA.A.

Comet Halley and the solar wind

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1991GMS....61..291B

0.33200/1991AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝBARBOSA,ÝD.ÝD.

Ion pickup, scattering, and stochastic acceleration in the cometary environment of P/Giacobini-Zinner

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1986S&T....71..438B

0.33105/1986AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝBEATTY,ÝJ.K.

An inside look at Halley's comet

------------------------------------------------------------------------

1997ApJ...482.1021F

0.32806/1997AÝÝEÝÝFÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝFLAMMER,ÝK.ÝR.; MENDIS,ÝD.ÝA.; SHAPIRO,ÝV.ÝD.

Interaction of the Solar Wind with Comet Hale-Bopp: Global Interaction and Microphysics

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1985Natur.318..646W

0.32712/1985AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝWALLIS,ÝM.K.; DRYER,ÝM.

Decay of the cometary bow shock

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1986Natur.321..347M

0.32605/1986AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝMCKENNA-LAWLOR,ÝS.; KIRSCH,ÝE.; O'SULLIVAN,ÝD.; THOMPSON,ÝA.; WENZEL,ÝK.-P.

Energetic ions in the environment of comet Halley

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1994JGR....9913335Z

0.32401/1994AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝZANK,ÝG.ÝP.; STORY,ÝT.ÝR.; NEUBAUER,ÝF.ÝM.

The structure of mass-loading shocks. 1: Comets

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1987RMxAA..14..682P

0.32205/1987AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝGÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝPEREZ-PERAZA,ÝJ.; ALVAREZ-MADRIGAL,ÝM.; SANCHEZ,ÝA.

Particle acceleration in cometary processes of magnetic reconnection

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1984AdSpR...4..239I

0.32200/1984AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝIP,ÝW.-H.

Comet-solar wind interactions - A dusty point of view

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1991AnGeo...9..158C

0.32003/1991AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝCOATES,ÝA.ÝJ.

Cometary plasma energisation

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1991cphe.conf.1211C

0.32000/1991AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝCRAVENS,ÝT.ÝE.

Plasma processes in the inner coma

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1988ARA&A..26...11M

0.31900/1988AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝMENDIS,ÝD.ÝA.

A postencounter view of comets

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1986GeoRL..13..259T

0.31803/1986AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝTSURUTANI,ÝB.T.; SMITH,ÝE.J.

Strong hydromagnetic turbulence associated with Comet Giacobini-Zinner

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1994GeoRL..21.1047H

0.31606/1994AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝHERBERT,ÝFLOYD

The impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on the Jovian magnetosphere

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1986GeoRL..13..263T

0.31503/1986AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝRÝÝCÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝTSURUTANI,ÝB.T.; SMITH,ÝE.J.

Hydromagnetic waves and instabilities associated with cometary ion pickup - ICE observations

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1989AdSpR...9Q....G

0.31400/1989AÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝÝGOMBOSI,ÝT.ÝI.; ATREYA,ÝS.ÝK.; GRUEN,ÝE.; HANNER,ÝM.ÝS.

Cometary environments; Proceedings of Symposium 5, Workshop IV, and Topical Meeting of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

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See Also: 

Comet Magnetosphere Info:

http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/ssc/tutorial/magnetosphere.html 

Comet Solar Wind Interactions:

http://www.geophys.washington.edu/People/Students/matt/comet.html 

Modeling of Cometary X-rays Caused by Solar Wind Minor Ions:

http://hpcc.engin.umich.edu/HPCC/recent3/index.html 

Other proofs: The following images show Sungrazing Comets diving into the Sun. These events are immediately followed by large CME events. Is this mere coincidence, or have these comets discharged the Solar Capacitor? 

Link Page: http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/LASCO/

These images which follow are "Courtesy of the SOHO/LASCO consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA." 

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GARY - PLEASE INSERT ATTACHED SOHO/LASCO MPEGS & JPEGS HERE

 

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Here are, yet, Two (2) More Link Pages which shows the Comet - CME - Casual Relationship 

Link Page: http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/comets/SOHO_sungrazers.html

Link Page: http://soi.stanford.edu/science/proposals/029.kosovichev/029/029.html

* For another theory, please see: Jim McCanney's Plasma Discharge Theory of Comets *

-------------------------------------- 

POINT:

3. The comet is not expected to become bright. It is not abnormally bright nor is it brightening at an unusual rate. In fact, it is not expected to become a naked-eye object. It is currently near its peak brightness. [Someone has quoted the parameter "n", which indicates the rate of a comet's brightening with respect to its distance from the Sun, as being 5.4 for Comet Lee. This, they say, is evidence that my statement above is incorrect. The fact is that values of n typically range from 2.5 to 6 for long period comets. Some short period comets have much higher values. I stand by my statement that Comet Lee's brightness or variation in brightness is not unusual. I base this on 30-years of analyzing comet light curves.] 

COUNTER-POINT:

3. Here is what other astronomers have to say regarding the unexpected brightening of C/1999 H1 (Lee). It is worth noting, that some of the magnitude estimates posted below were derived utilizing the "Morris Method."

Reference: ( Supportive statements on Comet Lee's unexpected brightening ) 

****Excerpt From: "Comet Observers' Forum:"**** 

Link Page: http://correio.cc.fc.ul.pt/~apereira/index.html

"While approaching the Sun from 1.7 to 1.06 AU, the intrinsic brightness showed a sustained increase following an inverse 5.4 power law in r. Such a high n value sustained over a significant range in r, while not unprecedented, is nevertheless unusual for a long-period comet. The light-curve hints at an increase in brightening pace around 1.5-1.4 AU, about the point where water sublimation can be expected to kick-in really vigorously, but 51 binocular observations covering the interval from r=1.7 to 1.06 AU, can be very well represented with the following inverse power law parameters: H0=6.07 (0.07); n=5.4 (0.2); sigma=0.19 mag.." ( See above link page for entire article )

****Excerpt From: The Japanese Site - "Weekly Information about Bright Comets"**** 

Link Page: http://www.info.waseda.ac.jp/muraoka/members/seiichi/comet/weekly/current.html

C/1999 H1 ( Lee ) 

Image: 1999 May 20 It brightened more rapidly than expected, so the I updated the magnitude prediction. It will be unobservable soon. Then it will appear at dawn as 6 mag in late July. After that, it will fade while being higher. 

Date(TT) R.A. (2000) Decl. Delta r Elong. m1 Mot.(') p.a. Best Time(A, h)

June 12 8 24.01 13 21.9 1.294 0.916 44 6.3 44.7 344.4 21:00 (101, 8)

June 19 8 18.31 17 56.8 1.423 0.837 35 6.0 37.9 342.0 21:03 (110, 4) 

( See above link page for entire article ) 

****Excerpt From: " Freelance Danish Astronomy Site"**** 

Link Page: http://www.syros.de/kometen/Archiv/C_1999 H1/99h12.htm 

C/1999 H1 (Lee) 

email by Jost Jahn at May, 28th: The comet is brighter than normal with a <n> more than 5. Bino observers estimate 6.6 to 6.9 mag. 

****Excerpt From: "Welkom bij de Nederlandse Kometen Vereniging"**** 

Link Page: http://home.wxs.nl/~ggilein/home.html

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CMTWIN.EXE (c) 1997 Wm. Schwittek [Fixed Time Input] Page 01

Comet: c/1999 H1 (LEE) Lat:+52,00 Lon:-004,00 [+=W,N]

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Time Epoch 2000 Distance (AU) Est

Date (UTC) RA Dec Alt Az Sun Earth Mag Elong

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07-24-99 00:00 07h40,2m +33.60' -03,5. 008,5. 00,75 01,68 +06,9 015,6.

07-27-99 00:00 07h36,2m +35.06' -02,0. 011,6. 00,78 01,67 +07,0 018,9.

07-30-99 00:00 07h32,0m +36.12' -00,4. 014,6. 00,80 01,64 +07,1 022,4.

08-02-99 00:00 07h27,7m +37.17' +01,4. 017,5. 00,83 01,62 +07,3 026,0.

08-05-99 00:00 07h23,3m +38.23' +03,2. 020,3. 00,87 01,59 +07,4 029,7.

08-08-99 00:00 07h18,6m +39.30' +05,3. 023,1. 00,90 01,55 +07,5 033,5.

08-11-99 00:00 07h13,7m +40.39' +07,4. 025,8. 00,94 01,51 +07,6 037,4.

08-14-99 00:00 07h08,3m +41.51' +09,7. 028,3. 00,97 01,47 +07,7 041,4.

08-17-99 00:00 07h02,4m +43.05' +12,2. 030,8. 01,01 01,42 +07,8 045,5.

08-20-99 00:00 06h55,9m +44.23' +14,8. 033,3. 01,05 01,38 +07,9 049,6.

08-23-99 00:00 06h48,5m +45.46' +17,7. 035,6. 01,10 01,33 +08,0 053,9.

08-26-99 00:00 06h40,0m +47.13' +20,8. 037,9. 01,14 01,27 +08,1 058,3.

08-29-99 00:00 06h30,1m +48.46' +24,2. 040,2. 01,18 01,22 +08,2 063,0.

09-01-99 00:00 06h18,3m +50.23' +27,9. 042,4. 01,22 01,17 +08,2 067,8.

09-04-99 00:00 06h04,2m +52.05' +31,9. 044,5. 01,27 01,12 +08,3 072,8.

09-07-99 00:00 05h47,0m +53.49' +36,2. 046,6. 01,31 01,07 +08,3 078,1.

09-10-99 00:00 05h25,9m +55.32' +41,0. 048,6. 01,35 01,02 +08,3 083,7.

09-13-99 00:00 05h00,0m +57.08' +46,3. 050,6. 01,39 00,97 +08,4 089,6.

09-16-99 00:00 04h28,6m +58.26' +52,1. 052,5. 01,44 00,93 +08,4 095,9.

09-19-99 00:00 03h51,5m +59.14' +58,3. 054,3. 01,48 00,89 +08,5 102,4.

09-22-99 00:00 03h09,8m +59.15' +65,1. 056,1. 01,52 00,86 +08,5 109,2.

09-25-99 00:00 02h25,9m +58.17' +72,4. 057,7. 01,57 00,84 +08,6 116,0.

09-28-99 00:00 01h43,4m +56.15' +80,0. 058,8. 01,61 00,83 +08,7 122,8.

10-01-99 00:00 01h05,0m +53.15' +87,8. 054,3. 01,65 00,83 +08,8 129,1.

10-04-99 00:00 00h32,4m +49.30' +84,3. 247,2. 01,70 00,84 +08,9 134,6.

10-07-99 00:00 00h05,7m +45.19' +76,5. 247,3. 01,74 00,86 +09,1 138,8.

10-10-99 00:00 23h44,1m +40.58' +69,1. 248,6. 01,78 00,89 +09,3 141,5.

10-13-99 00:00 23h26,9m +36.42' +62,0. 250,1. 01,82 00,93 +09,5 142,4.

10-16-99 00:00 23h13,2m +32.39' +55,4. 251,7. 01,87 00,98 +09,7 141,7.

10-19-99 00:00 23h02,2m +28.54' +49,4. 253,4. 01,91 01,04 +09,9 139,8.

10-22-99 00:00 22h53,4m +25.30' +43,8. 255,1. 01,95 01,10 +10,1 137,0.

Other useful (Comet Magnitude) Resources:

Link Page: http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/icq/CometMags.html

Link Page: http://www.iac.es/galeria/mrk/recent_obs.html

Link Page: http://encke.jpl.nasa.gov/RecentObs.html#99H1 

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LAST WORDS: 

It is time to put away the childish name calling which is so frequently utilized by the so-called legitimate experts at NASA, JPL, and the IAU, as well as many other governmentally funded agency's. Central to this issue is the deliberate promotion of opinion, and false statements, as scientific truth. Truth, which has been cleverly designed to label many researchers as discredited pseudo-scientists, especially, if their work falls just outside the bounds standard governmental criteria. This must not be tolerated any longer. Because it establishes a very dangerous precedent. One which ultimately could serve to restrict pure science to a form of totalitarian control.

END OF ARTICLE

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