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46. The following star-like characteristics attest to the fact that both Jupiter and Saturn are small stellar objects, with Saturn being much more active than Jupiter. This is a result of ongoing fusion triggered by energetic lightning bolts in their atmospheres. Rings: All three have stable flat rings (see footnote 12 above). The Sun has at least four such and its zodiacal disk; Jupiter has only one thin ring, whereas Saturn exhibits an extensive ring system with energetic electrical discharges between the rings and from the rings to the planet (observed as aurora belts). Interplanetary electrical discharges: the Io to Jupiter current sheet of 5 million amps has been detected; Dione of Saturn (as well as Saturn's rings) maintains a similar discharge, and comets which approach the Sun within the zodical disk form visible sunward electrical discharges (the sunward spike). Energetic particles: Surrounding Saturn is a plasma with particle energies higher than those found in the interior of the Sun. No known mechanism other than fusion could produce particles with such energies. Differential rotation: Saturn's and Jupiter's high velocity equitorial wind belts correspond to the differential rotation observed in the Suns atmosphere, the wind speeds in Saturn being over three times those observed at Jupiter. High temperatures: Pioneer-Saturn measured the temperatures in Saturn's ionosphere to be 1250degreesK. "This high temperature requires an extensive energy source other than the Sun. This phenomena was also observed at Jupiter." (Quote from 1990 NASA news release Science Hightights.) See also M. Shimizu's paper in The Moon and the Planets, 22 (June, 1980). Exothermic radiation: Both Jupiter and Saturn appear very bright at certain wavelengths, radiating two to three times the energy they receive from the Sun. Saturn emits more excess radiation for its size than Jupiter. Atmospheric conditions and lightning: The atmospheric circulation patterns of stalls objects are similar, with the violent storms producing energetic lightning bolts detectable as radio noise. The lightning bolts in Satum's rings and in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are estimated to be millions of times more powerful than lightning bolts on Earth. Footnote No. 41 of Part I (KRONOS IX: 1) further discusses electrical phenomena at Saturn.
47. R. A. Koff, Science, 207 (1980), P. 292.
48. Astro News, Astronomy, 9 (March, 1991), P. 58.
49. W. Sullivan, New York Times (July 1. 1980). P. C1.
50. "Jupiter and Saturn", Sci. American (December, 1981), pp. 90-108 (A. P. Ingersoll).
51. "The Atmosphere of Venus",Sci. American (July, 1981), P. 66 (G. Schubert & C. Covey).
52. R. A. Kerr, Science, 209 (1980), P. 1219.
53. R. A. Kerr, Science, 207 (1990), P. 289.
54. R. Berry, Astronomy, 9 (March, 1980), P. 18.
55. B. Smith, Science, 204 (1979), P. 955.
56. M. L. Kaiser, Science, 209 (1980), P. 1239.
57. M. M. Waldrop, Science, 210 (1980), P. 1107.
58. For a complete list of all radioactive isotopes and the energies of formation from other elements, refer to a Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (look in the index under "Radioactive Elements". Note that energies of particles necessary to initiate nuclear reactions in atomic nuclei depend more on the Coulomb barrier of the atomic nucleus rather than specific properties of the nuclei. At particle energies in excess of 20 MeV, however, a great variety of nuclear transmutations will occur.
59. S. E. DeForest, J. Geophys. Res, 77 (1972), P. 65 1.
60. in short, the induced electric dipole red-shift concept amounts to the following: A non-uniform electric field exists between a central star undergoing fusion (quasar, or other starlike object) and a surrounding nebular ion cloud (held back by proton wind pressure) as discussed in Parts I and II of this paper. Secondly, a gamma ray photon may divide in the strong nonuniform eletric field of an atomic nucleus during electron-positron pair production. The photon energy is converted into the rest mass of the particles, but due to conservation of charge, the positive and negative charges must have existed in the photon prior to pair production. It is the induced electric dipole force that forces pair production in the gamma ray photon when near the atomic nucleus. By the same reasoning, all photons must contain charge pairs which will separate slightly when moving through a non-uniform electric field, causing an attractive (the induced electric dipole field is always attractive) force on the photon. Thus, photons leaving a central star's electric field (or passing by) will experience a slight central force which will reduce slightly the photon energy (or bend it towards the central star). This concept can be verified experimentally and will be presented in detail in Part II of this paper.

APPENDIX I

A Sample Calculation For The Circularization Of An Orbit

A number of assumptions are made and a simple calculation is performed to illustrate the rapid orbital circularization that is possible due to the "tail drag" on a comet nucleus.

This appendix shows two results depending on the intensity of the electrical discharge between Sun and nebular ion-cloud, and on whether the discharge is "localized" or forms a complete breakdown of the solar capacitor. The first result provides an explanation for the clustering of comet orbits near the calculated position of the Oort cloud. The second result illustrates the rapid orbital circularization of comets which completely break down the solar capacitor.

Before presenting any formulas, a brief verbal explanation can be given: Laplace and Euler were early investigators of the effects of the "secular action of the resisting medium". Also, Encke suggested that such effects may cause comet wandering. These investigators showed that a resisting medium surrounding the Sun (becoming denser as one neared the Sun) would account for a spiralling sunward of any orbiting object and, secondly, would account for a reduction in the eccentricity of the orbit (the orbit became circularized). If the resisting medium were denser with increasing distance from the Sun, a energies of formation from the inward spiralling would still occur; however, the eccentricity of orbit would increase.

After the discovery of the solar wind in the 1960s, scientists claimed that the resisting medium was an impossibility, since the wind of electrons, protons, and ions emanating from the Sun would quickly (within a matter of days) disperse such a cloud into the far reaches of the solar system. It was this discovery which firmly entrenched the ice ball comet model in the astrophysics journals. The assumption of an electrically neutral solar system also prevented scientists from realizing that there is, in fact, an excess current of positive charge in the solar wind (as presented in this paper).

Now it is known from observation that many rings of matter orbit the Sun, defying previously held theories, but also providing a source for comet tail matter as described in this paper. One ring lies very near the Sun while three others lie in the region between Mars and Jupiter. Possibly, other faint rings lie in the outer regions of the solar system. This paper also predicts that our Sun, like approximately 50 stars recently studied by the IRAS satellite, win have a doughnut shaped nebular cloud surrounding it past the orbit of Pluto. All of these rings are sources of comet tail material and, as mentioned, discharges may occur locally when comet nuclei enter these regions (similar to the discharges detected between the rings of Saturn) or a complete discharge (between the Sun and ring) may occur. The localized discharges have the effect of increasing comet orbital eccentricities whereas the complete discharge tends to decrease orbital eccentricity.

A) The "Oort effect": The nebular doughnut cloud estimated to lie past Pluto will be involved in localized discharges as comet nuclei enter this region of space around the Sun. The net effect will be to draw the comet orbital semi-major axis to the doughnut nebula. This is a direct result of Laplace's mathematical findings in his classic text Micanique Celeste. We are not interested particularly in the time scales required to reach the fine clustering of many comets around the doughnut nebula (such an analysis is far beyond the scope of this paper).

B) It is of greater importance to illustrate the possibility of rapid orbital circularization by the new comet theory, since this is paramount for those interested in Velikovsky's scenario of Venus becoming a planet from a comet, and having its orbit circularized in a very short time astronomically.

For this analysis, we assume: 1) the cometary discharge was complete (from Sun to nebular cloud or ring), 2) that the discharge became more intense while the comet nucleus was closer to the Sun, and became less intense at greater distances from the Sun, and 3) that the majority of mass of Venus was accumulated after its capture into the inner solar system by Jupiter (or Saturn).

These assumptions allow us to use the same basic formulas as used by Laplace and Encke. However, rather than the comet nucleus simply passing through a sparse resisting medium, large quantities of matter fall into the comet nucleus by powerful electrical forces as the comet discharges the solar capacitor.

The general results taken from Smart's Celestial Mechanics(11) are:

                                      ^e = - 4pi c e / h

                                      ^a = - 4pi c a/h x 1+e2/1-e2

                                     c/h = 0.0007958 in this example

where: ^e = change in eccentricity during one orbital period
            ^a = change in semi-major axis during one orbital period
             c and h are parameters related to the tail drag
             e and a are the eccentricity and semi-major axis during one orbital period.

These results assume a resistive force of the form

                                                             R = cV/r^2

Where:
              R = resistive force
              v = velocity of comet nucleus relative to the source of the tail material
               r = Sun-comet nucleus separation

The following initial conditions are used, producing the final results in only 669 years as shown in the table below. Aphelion of the initial comet orbit lies near the orbit of Jupiter. The final aphelion lies at the present location of the planet Venus (encounters with Earth and Mars are possibility of rapid orbital not included since this example Is only meant to illustrate the principles of orbital circularization.).
 
 

TIME 
(yrs)

APHELION 
(10^12m)

PERIHELION 
(10^12m)

e

Location compared to 
present solar system

0

.74900

.68444

.0450

(comet near Jupiter)

570

.24306

.23584

.0151

(comet near Mars)

635

.16243

.15918

.0101

(comet near Earth)

669

.10873

.10727

.0068

(Venus' present orbit)

 
 

Due to the assumption of a constant rate of mass accumulation, (e.g., comet development depends on the solar discharge, not cometary mass) the majority of circularization occurs early in the 669 year simulation. Note that the increase in planetary radius in the final stages of evolution of this example is about one meter per hour.

APPENDIX II

Experiments Which Will Verify The Presently Proposed Theory For Comet Behavior

The four upcoming satellite fly-by missions (one to Comet GiacobiniZenner and three to Halley's Comet) can verify the theory presented in this paper by noting a number of distinctive effects that will occur as the spacecraft approach the comets. These are predicted by the present theory and are totally inconsistent with any results of the ice ball comet model (unfortunately many space scientists have become adept at rationalizing almost any data to claim support for previously "accepted" theory by generating after-the-fact explanations. The author proposes at this time that the amount of after-the-fact explaining required by a theory be used as a measure of its incorrectness).

The U. S. probe (the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3) was diverted from environmental studies of the Sun in Earth's vicinity to an orbit that will pass through the tail of Comet Giacobini-Zenner in September, 1985. It carries an X-ray telescope, magnetometer, and particle detectors as well as a number of antennas. The other three probes of Japan, France-Russia, and the European Space Agency will all approach Halley's Comet in 1986.

A number of unusual results are predicted by the theory proposed in this paper and are not compatible with the ice ball comet model. They are as follows:
1) Tail material (positive ions and positively charged dust particles) will be detected by direct observation to move towards the comet nucleus. (Previously, Earth-based red shift measurements have been used to suggest that tail material moves away from the comet nucleus; Part III of this paper shows why these data have been misinterpreted.)
2) Spacecraft telemetry will begin to sense an acceleration towards the comet nucleus - far in excess of any expected gravitational field of a small "ice ball". (This is the result of the induced electric dipole force on the metal spacecraft.) This will also make it difficult to maintain spacecraft orientation while in the tail area.
3) This acceleration will cause an unexpected perturbation in the orbit of the satellite as it emerges from the comet tail. (in contrast, a negligible perturbation would be expected from a near-massless ice ball.)
4) If the satellites pass too close to the comet nucleus, they may be uncontrollably pulled into the comet nucleus for the same reasons.
5) The most conclusive evidence would come if one of the spacecraft would be diverted to pass between the comet nucleus and the Sun. The ice ball comet model would not anticipate any alteration in the solar wind in this area, since the ice ball is seen only to melt away in the tail direction. The present theory, however, would expect the following as the satellite approached a point between the Sun and nucleus in the region of the comet nucleus. First, an intensified proton wind would be detected followed by a substantial current of electrons (the electrons moving towards the comet nucleus) at the point between Sun and comet nucleus. This would be followed again by an intensified proton wind. This would substantiate the electrical discharge nature of comets as opposed to an ice bell melted by solar radiation.
6) Even if the spacecraft are not diverted into the region between the Sun and comet nucleus, the current sheets just mentioned should be detected as the spacecraft approach the comets.
7) X-ray activity may be detectable in the vicinity of the comet nucleus.
8) If the cometary discharges become intense enough in the comets being studied, both cosmic rays and X-rays (and possibly gamma rays) may be detected by the ISEE-3 satellite. None of these phenomena have been studied by Earthbased investigators since comets were believed to be melting ice. The author cannot overstress the complexity of reactions, both chemical and nuclear, that must occur in a highly active comet in which particle energies rise in excess of 20-30 MeV.

Note that both comet theories seem to explain data as observed from Earth, but it will be the effects listed above, which are only detectable by a spacecraft in the vicinity of the comet nucleus, which will establish the correctness of one theory or the other.
 

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